Synthesis of [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] and its potential as gunshot residue marker

by Kenneth Ujevich

The 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] was synthesized under specific conditions and exhibited a white-yellow color when excited at 365 nm. This color arises from the simultaneous blue, yellow, and red transitions of Dy3+. This MOF exhibited a high potential for use as a luminescent marker for gunshot residue (GSR) and in the ammunition encoding process because it was possible to observe visually the luminescent gunshot residue on the shooter’s hands, both on the firearm and at the firing range, using an UV lamp. These particles were easily collected and characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The particles exhibited a typical morphology and a composition, making them easy to differentiate from particles of occupational or environmental origin.

Marcella A. Melo Lucena, Marcelo Oliveira Rodrigues, Claudia C. Gatto, Marcio Talhavini, Adriano O. Maldaner, Severino Alves Jr., Ingrid T. Weber. “Synthesis of [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] and its potential as gunshot residue marker.” Journal of Luminescence, Volume 170, Part 2, February 2016, Pages 697-700, ISSN 0022-2313,


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